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Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and was born in 348 B.C. He studied
under another philosopher Plato and later tutored Alexander the Great at
the Macedonian court. In 335 B.C. he opened a school in the Athenian
Lyceum. During the anti-Macedonian agitation after Alexander's death
Aristotle fled to Chalcis where he later died in 322 B.C. His extant
writings, largely in the form of lecture notes made by his students,
include the Organum (treatises of logic); Physics; Metaphysics; De Anima
(on the soul); Nicomachean Ethics and Eudemian Ethics; Politics: De
Poetica: Rhetoric; and works biology and physics. Aristotle held
philosophy to be the the discerning, through the use of systematic logic
as expressed in Syllogisms, of the self-evident, changeless first
principles that form the basis of all knowledge. He taught that
knowledge of a thing requires an inquiry into causality and that the
"final cause"-the purpose or function of the thing-is primary.
a direct quote from his works (translated):
"The highest good for the individual is the complete exercise of the
specifically human function of rationality. In contrast to the Platonic
belief that a concrete reality partakes of a from but does not embody it
with the exception of the Prime Mover (God), form has no separate
existence but is immanent in matter."
Aristotle's work was lost following the decline of the Roman Empire but
was reintroduced to the West through the work of Arab and Jewish
scholars, becoming the basis of medieval scholasticism.
In my opinion Aristotle was one of the greatest and most important of
the philosophers and scientists of the world's history.
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