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14 ELEMENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL SAFETY &
Element 1: Hazard Recognition, Evaluation and Control.
Establishing and maintaining safe and healthful conditions required
evaluating their pontential effects, developing ways to eliminate or
control them and
planning action priorities.This process is the essence of successful
safety and health
Element 2:Workplace Design and Engineering
Safety and health issues are most easily and economically addressed when
processes and equipment are being designed. Organizations must
into workplace design, production processes and selection.They also need
and modify or replace exisiting processes, equipment and facilities to
make them safer.
We explore how the design and function of the workplace can complement
health goals, minimize exposure to hazards and promote safe practices.
Element 3: Safety Performance Management
As in all areas of operations, standards must be set for safety
performance. They should
reflect applicable regulatory requirements, additional voluntary
guidelines and best business practices. We describe how managers,
supervisors and employees
can be made responsible and held accountable for meeting standards
control. We look at how job performance appraisals can reflect
performance in safety
and health, as well as in other areas.
Element 4: Regulatory Compliance Management
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Mine
Health Administration (MSHA) and state safety and health agencies
and enforce safety and health regulations.Other agencies, such as the
Protection Agency, also issue and enforce regulations relating to safety
in the United States. We discuss key aspects of international
regulations in the European
Union, Canada and Mexico. Staying informed about and complying with
are essential goals of safety and health programs.We also look briefly
at conducting regulatory compliance inspections.
Element 5: Occupational Health
Occupational health programs range from the simple to the complex. At a
such programs address the immediate needs of injured or ill employees by
first aid and responce to emergencies. More elaborate medical services
medical surveillance programs and provision for an in-house medical
In addition, some companies are beginning to focus on off-the-job safety
through employee wellness and similar programs.
ELEMENT 6: Information Collection
Safety and health activities, including inspections, record keeping,
surveys and other occupational health assessments,
and performance reviews, produce a large quantity of data. Safety and
health professionals must collect and analyze this data. Small incidents
often provide early
warning of more serious safety or health problems. Complete and accurate
can be used to identify hazards, measure safety performance and
through analyses, help identify patterns.
ELEMENT 7: Employee Involvement
Design and engineering controls are limited in their ability to reduce
Companies now understand that their real assets are people, not
they also realize that employees must recognize their stake in a safe
workplace. As employees become more involved in planning, implementation
improvement, they see the need for safer work practices. Solutions to
health problems often come from affected employees. We look at how
can contribute to safety and health objectives through safety committees
ELEMENT 8: Motivation, Behavior, and Attitudes
Movtivation aims at changing behavior and attitudes to create a safer,
healthier workplace. This elements describe two general approches
to motivate employees and stresses the role that visible management
plays in changing unsafe or unhealthy behaviors and attitudes. It also
three motivational techniques: communications,
ELEMENT 9:Training and Orientation
New and transferred employees must become familiar with company policies
procedures and learn how to perform thier jobs safely and efficiently.
The use of
on-the-job, classroom and specialty training can contribute to a
and health program. A complete program includes hazard recognition,
compliance and prevention. The training is reinforced through regular
with both new and veteran employees.
ELEMENT 10: Organizational Communications
Effective communication within the organization keeps employees informed
policies, procedures, goals and progress. We see how to spread the word
safety and health programs inside the company through the use of
notices,newsletters, meeting and other devices. Effective two-way
between employees and managers is critical as is publicizing safety and
information in the community.
ELEMENT 11:Management and Control of External Exposures
Todays safety and health programs must address risks beyond the
walls. We described the kinds of contingency plans and "what if"
that are part of planning for disasters, contractor activities and
product and other
ELEMENT 12:Environmental Management
Environmental management often requires a complete program of its own
addressed in a separate volume, 7 Elements of Successful Environmental
available from the National Safety Council. Many companies, however,
address environmental issues along with safety and health as part of
programs. We discuss the minimum that an environmental program should
including compliance monitioring and contingency planning for
aggressive environmental management incorporates pollution prevention
active role in environmental improvement.
ELEMENT 13:Workplace Planning and Staffing
Safety and health considerations are important when planning for and
companys work force. We consider issues such as work safety rules,
assistance programs and requirements resulting from the American with
ELEMENT 14:Assessments, Audits, and Evaluations
Every organizations needs tools to measure conditions, monitor
assess progress. A variety of evaluative tools can be used to meet the
the organizations, including self- assessments, third-party assessments
regulatory assessments. Numerous resources are available for conducting
audits and evaluations, including the companys own trained internal
and OSHA and other agencies.
The Continuous Improvement Model is a framework for safety presented in
National Safety Councils Agenda 2000 Safety Health Environment Program.
The 14 Elements are the materials that fit within the framework.
improvement is a process-oriented business approach that emphasizes
the contributions people make to long-range, permanent solutions to
It is the cornerstone of total quality management. Applying the process
the Contiinuous Improvement Model requires understanding causes before
designing solutions.Improvements may be dramatic or incremental. In any
the model helps ensure that occur regularly.
The Continuous Improvement Model
Management Commitment and Involvement
The first phase is to make a management commitment and to gain
involvement. Companies with successful safety and health programs have
senior management participation. Without this active involvement,
managers and front-line supervisors tend to ignore safety and health as
Senior management signals its commitment by stating a position that is
communcated through clear, unambiguous policy and implementation
When management supports the 14 Elements, it also indicates a broad
commitment to the issues include in the reviews. It then supports
continuous improvement in safty and health through ongoing involvement,
allocation of resources and feedback.
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